Student Learning Outcomes

Doctor of Pharmacy Programmatic Learning Objectives (PLOs)

Domain 1 – Foundational Knowledge

Learner (Learner) - Develop, integrate, and apply knowledge from the foundational sciences (i.e., pharmaceutical, social/behavioral/administrative, and clinical sciences) to evaluate the scientific literature, explain drug action, solve therapeutic problems, and advance population health and patient-centered care.

  • Develop and demonstrate depth and breadth of knowledge in pharmaceutical, social/behavioral/administrative, and clinical sciences.
  • Integrate knowledge from foundational sciences to explain how specific drugs or drug classes work and evaluate their potential value in individuals and populations.
  • Apply knowledge in foundational sciences to solve therapeutic problems and advance patient-centered care and population based care.
  • Critically analyze scientific literature related to drugs and disease to enhance clinical decision making.

Domain 2 – Essentials for Practice and Care

Patient-centered care (Caregiver) - Provide patient-centered care as the medication expert (collect and interpret evidence, prioritize, formulate assessments and recommendations, implement, monitor and adjust plans, and document activities).

  • Collect and interpret subjective and objective evidence related to patient, medications, allergies/adverse reactions, and disease, by performing patient assessment (including physical assessment) from chart/electronic health records, pharmacist records and patient/family interviews.
  • Prioritize patient needs and formulate evidence based care plans, assessments, and recommendations.
  • Implement, monitor, document patient care related activities and adjust care plan as needed.

Medication use systems management (Manager) - Manage patient healthcare needs using human, financial, technological, and physical resources to optimize the safety and efficacy of medication use systems.

  • Compare and contrast the components of typical medication use systems in different pharmacy practice settings.
  • Identify and utilize technology, human, financial, and physical resources to optimize the medication use system.
  • Apply standards, guidelines, best practices, and established processes related to safe and effective medication use.
  • Utilize continuous quality improvement techniques in the medication use process.

Health and wellness (Promoter) - Design prevention, intervention, and educational strategies for individuals and communities to manage chronic disease and improve health and wellness.

  • Provide prevention, intervention, and educational strategies for individuals and communities to improve health and wellness.
  • Participate with interprofessional healthcare team members in the management of, and health promotion for, all patients.
  • Evaluate personal, social, economic, and environmental conditions to maximize health and wellness.

Population-based care (Provider) - Describe how population-based care influences patient-centered care and influences the development of practice guidelines and evidence-based best practices.

  • Assess the healthcare status and needs of a targeted patient population.
  • Identify population-based interventions intended to promote evidence-based patient-centered care.

Domain 3 - Approach to Practice and Care

Problem Solving (Problem Solver) – Identify problems; explore and prioritize potential strategies; and design, implement, and evaluate a viable solution.

  • Efficiently and effectively solve problems by applying a structured problem solving process, such as the five-step problem-solving model.

Educator (Educator) – Educate all audiences by determining the most effective and enduring ways to impart information and assess understanding.

  • Using a systematic instructional design model provide effective, appropriate patient education.
  • Coordinate educational efforts with other healthcare providers, when appropriate, to ensure a consistent, comprehensive, and team-based encounter.
  • Participate in the development of community-based activities that promote public health, safety, and wellness.

Patient Advocacy (Advocate) - Assure that patients’ best interests are represented.

  • Encourage patients to take responsibility for and control of their health and healthcare.
  • Assist all patients in obtaining the necessary resources, services, medications, devices, and care in a timely and cost-effective manner.
  • Act as a public health advocate by identifying and providing patients with current health-care information.

Interprofessional collaboration (Collaborator) – Actively participate and engage as a healthcare team member by demonstrating mutual respect, understanding, and values to meet patient care needs.

  • Work with individuals of other professions to maintain a climate of mutual respect and shared values.
  • Use the knowledge of one’s own role and those of other professions to appropriately assess and address the healthcare needs of the patients and populations served.
  • Communicate with patients, families, communities, and other health professionals in a responsive and responsible manner that supports a team approach to the maintenance of health and the treatment of disease.
  • Apply relationship-building values and principles of team dynamics to perform effectively in different team roles to plan and deliver patient-/population-centered care that is safe, timely, efficient, effective, and equitable.

Cultural sensitivity (Includer) - Recognize social determinants of health to diminish disparities and inequities in access to quality care.

  • Demonstrate an attitude that is respectful of different cultures.  Display sensitivity to patients’ cultural perspectives that influence health and healthcare beliefs.
  • Assess a patient’s basic literacy as well as health literacy and modify communication strategies to meet the patient’s needs.
  • Safely and appropriately incorporate patients’ cultural beliefs and practices into health and wellness care plans.
  • Recognize the impact of social and cultural factors on health disparities, health behaviors, and beliefs.

Communication (Communicator) – Effectively communicate verbally and nonverbally when interacting with an individual, group, or organization.

  • Using appropriate cross cultural communication, interview patients using an organized structure, specific questioning techniques (e.g., motivational interviewing), and medical terminology adapted for the audience.
  • Effectively use active listening skills during all interpersonal interactions.
  • Effectively use available technology and resources to assist with communication.
  • While maintaining patient confidentiality, clearly, concisely, and accurately document patient care activities using appropriate medical terminology.
  • Interact with technicians and other support staff to develop and maintain a positive work environment.

Domain 4 – Personal and Professional Development

Self-awareness (Self-aware) – Examine and reflect on personal knowledge, skills, abilities, beliefs, biases, motivation, and emotions that could enhance or limit personal and professional growth.

  • Identify, create, implement, evaluate, and modify plans for continuing personal and professional development.
  • Attain recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in self-directed and life-long learning.
  • Strive for accuracy and precision by displaying a willingness to recognize, correct, and learn from errors.

Leadership (Leader) - Demonstrate responsibility for creating and achieving shared goals, regardless of position.

  • Identify the qualities and practices of leadership.
  • Develop relationships, value diverse opinions, and understand individual strengths and weaknesses to promote a culture of teamwork.

Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Innovator) - Engage in innovative activities by using creative thinking to envision better ways of accomplishing professional goals.

  • Attain and apply innovation skills to develop new ideas and approaches to advance the profession. 
  • Demonstrate decision-making and problem-solving skills to overcome challenges and barriers to improvement.

Professionalism (Professional) - Exhibit behaviors and values that are consistent with the trust given to the profession by patients, other healthcare providers, and society.

  • Deliver patient-centered care in a manner that is legal and ethical.