Doctor of Pharmacy Programmatic Learning Objectives (PLOs)
DOMAIN 1 – FOUNDATIONAL KNOWLEDGE
Learner (Learner) - Develop, integrate, and apply knowledge from the foundational sciences (i.e., pharmaceutical, social/behavioral/administrative, and clinical sciences) to evaluate the scientific literature, explain drug action, solve therapeutic problems, and advance population health and patient-centered care.
- Develop and demonstrate depth and breadth of knowledge in pharmaceutical, social/behavioral/administrative, and clinical sciences.
- Integrate knowledge from foundational sciences to explain how specific drugs or drug classes work and evaluate their potential value in individuals and populations.
- Apply knowledge in foundational sciences to solve therapeutic problems and advance patient-centered care and population based care.
- Critically analyze scientific literature related to drugs and disease to enhance clinical decision making.
DOMAIN 2 – ESSENTIALS FOR PRACTICE AND CARE
Patient-centered care (Caregiver) - Provide patient-centered care as the medication expert (collect and interpret evidence, prioritize, formulate assessments and recommendations, implement, monitor and adjust plans, and document activities).
- Collect and interpret subjective and objective evidence related to patient, medications, allergies/adverse reactions, and disease, by performing patient assessment (including physical assessment) from chart/electronic health records, pharmacist records and patient/family interviews.
- Prioritize patient needs and formulate evidence based care plans, assessments, and recommendations.
- Implement, monitor, document patient care related activities and adjust care plan as needed.
Medication use systems management (Manager) - Manage patient healthcare needs using human, financial, technological, and physical resources to optimize the safety and efficacy of medication use systems.
- Compare and contrast the components of typical medication use systems in different pharmacy practice settings.
- Identify and utilize technology, human, financial, and physical resources to optimize the medication use system.
- Apply standards, guidelines, best practices, and established processes related to safe and effective medication use.
- Utilize continuous quality improvement techniques in the medication use process.
Health and wellness (Promoter) - Design prevention, intervention, and educational strategies for individuals and communities to manage chronic disease and improve health and wellness.
- Provide prevention, intervention, and educational strategies for individuals and communities to improve health and wellness.
- Participate with interprofessional healthcare team members in the management of, and health promotion for, all patients.
- Evaluate personal, social, economic, and environmental conditions to maximize health and wellness.
Population-based care (Provider) - Describe how population-based care influences patient-centered care and influences the development of practice guidelines and evidence-based best practices.
- Assess the healthcare status and needs of a targeted patient population.
- Identify population-based interventions intended to promote evidence-based patient-centered care.
DOMAIN 3 - APPROACH TO PRACTICE AND CARE
Problem Solving (Problem Solver) – Identify problems; explore and prioritize potential strategies; and design, implement, and evaluate a viable solution.
- Efficiently and effectively solve problems by applying a structured problem solving process, such as the five-step problem-solving model.
Educator (Educator) – Educate all audiences by determining the most effective and enduring ways to impart information and assess understanding.
- Using a systematic instructional design model provide effective, appropriate patient education.
- Coordinate educational efforts with other healthcare providers, when appropriate, to ensure a consistent, comprehensive, and team-based encounter.
- Participate in the development of community-based activities that promote public health, safety, and wellness.
Patient Advocacy (Advocate) - Assure that patients’ best interests are represented.
- Encourage patients to take responsibility for and control of their health and healthcare.
- Assist all patients in obtaining the necessary resources, services, medications, devices, and care in a timely and cost-effective manner.
- Act as a public health advocate by identifying and providing patients with current health-care information.
Interprofessional collaboration (Collaborator) – Actively participate and engage as a healthcare team member by demonstrating mutual respect, understanding, and values to meet patient care needs.
- Work with individuals of other professions to maintain a climate of mutual respect and shared values.
- Use the knowledge of one’s own role and those of other professions to appropriately assess and address the healthcare needs of the patients and populations served.
- Communicate with patients, families, communities, and other health professionals in a responsive and responsible manner that supports a team approach to the maintenance of health and the treatment of disease.
- Apply relationship-building values and principles of team dynamics to perform effectively in different team roles to plan and deliver patient-/population-centered care that is safe, timely, efficient, effective, and equitable.
Cultural sensitivity (Includer) - Recognize social determinants of health to diminish disparities and inequities in access to quality care.
- Demonstrate an attitude that is respectful of different cultures. Display sensitivity to patients’ cultural perspectives that influence health and healthcare beliefs.
- Assess a patient’s basic literacy as well as health literacy and modify communication strategies to meet the patient’s needs.
- Safely and appropriately incorporate patients’ cultural beliefs and practices into health and wellness care plans.
- Recognize the impact of social and cultural factors on health disparities, health behaviors, and beliefs.
Communication (Communicator) – Effectively communicate verbally and nonverbally when interacting with an individual, group, or organization.
- Using appropriate cross cultural communication, interview patients using an organized structure, specific questioning techniques (e.g., motivational interviewing), and medical terminology adapted for the audience.
- Effectively use active listening skills during all interpersonal interactions.
- Effectively use available technology and resources to assist with communication.
- While maintaining patient confidentiality, clearly, concisely, and accurately document patient care activities using appropriate medical terminology.
- Interact with technicians and other support staff to develop and maintain a positive work environment.
DOMAIN 4 – PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Self-awareness (Self-aware) – Examine and reflect on personal knowledge, skills, abilities, beliefs, biases, motivation, and emotions that could enhance or limit personal and professional growth.
- Identify, create, implement, evaluate, and modify plans for continuing personal and professional development.
- Attain recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in self-directed and life-long learning.
- Strive for accuracy and precision by displaying a willingness to recognize, correct, and learn from errors.
Leadership (Leader) - Demonstrate responsibility for creating and achieving shared goals, regardless of position.
- Identify the qualities and practices of leadership.
- Develop relationships, value diverse opinions, and understand individual strengths and weaknesses to promote a culture of teamwork.
Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Innovator) - Engage in innovative activities by using creative thinking to envision better ways of accomplishing professional goals.
- Attain and apply innovation skills to develop new ideas and approaches to advance the profession.
- Demonstrate decision-making and problem-solving skills to overcome challenges and barriers to improvement.
Professionalism (Professional) - Exhibit behaviors and values that are consistent with the trust given to the profession by patients, other healthcare providers, and society.
- Deliver patient-centered care in a manner that is legal and ethical.